With renewed interest in renewable and sustainable energy systems, solar-powered cars have come to the forefront. Many automobile companies are working towards making solar cars, and they are changing the automotive industry.Solar cars are electric cars that use solar energy. They use photovoltaic cells to convert energy from sunlight into electricity.
The UHF connector, also sometimes known as the Amphenol coaxial connector was designed in the 1930s by a designer in the Amphenol company for use as an RF connector in the radio industry.The UHF connector was initially intended for use as a video connector for radar equipment, but it later became used in a variety of RF applications.
Ionospheric propagation tutorial includes . .Ionospheric propagationIonosphereIonospheric layersSkywaves & skipCritical frequency, MUF, LUF & OWFIonospheric absorptionSolar indicesPropagation softwareNVISTransequatorial propagationGrey line propagationSporadic ESpread FAs electromagnetic waves, and in this case, radio signals travel, they interact with objects and the media in which they travel.
Solar effects on propagation includes:Solar effects on radio propagationSunspotsSolar disturbancesSID sudden ionospheric disturbanceAs electromagnetic waves, and in this case, radio signals travel, they interact with objects and the media in which they travel. As they do this the radio signals can be reflected, refracted or diffracted.
The N-type connector is a high performance RF coaxial connector. The N-type RF connector is used in many applications, particularly where RF performance is of paramount importance.Although not used as widely in small laboratories and hobbyist applications, the N-type connector is particularly good where high powers and high performance are needed.
Yagi antenna includes:Yagi antennaYagi antenna theory & calculationsYagi antenna gain & directivityYagi feed impedance & matchingAs with any other type of antenna, ensuring that a good match between the feeder and the antenna itself are crucial to ensure the performance of the antenna can be optimised.
Waveguide Tutorial Includes:Waveguide basicsWaveguide modesWaveguide impedance & matchingWaveguide cut-off-frequencyWaveguide flangesWaveguide junctionsWaveguide bendsFlexible waveguideWaveguide types & sizesWaveguides come in a variety of sizes so that they can meet the variety of different requirements for use in many different frequency bands.
SMT Soldering Includes:SMT soldering techniquesWave solderingReflow solderingSoldering BGAsWhat is solder paste & how to use itSee also:Soldering basicsManual soldering: how to solderSoldering ironsTools for solderingSolder - what it is and how to use itDe-soldering - the secrets of how to do it properlySolder jointsAt first sight soldering ball grid arrays, BGAs may seem to be difficult as the solder balls that solder onto the PCB are sandwiched between the BGA body itself and the circuit board.
Meteor scatter tutorial includes:Meteor burst communicationsMeteor types & showersMeteor trails & radio signalsPropagation & frequenciesThe way in which meteor scatter radio propagation can be used depends upon the characteristics.Meteor burst communications is dependent on frequency, and there are a variety of issues that affect the frequencies that are used - not all depend upon the characteristics of the meteor trails and their effects on the signals.
VSWR & Transmission Line Theory Tutorial Includes:What is VSWR?Reflection CoefficientVSWR formulas & calculationsHow to measure VSWRHow to use a VSWR meterSimple SWR bridge circuitWhat is return lossVSWR / Return Loss TableIt is often necessary to convert VSWR to return loss or return loss to VSWR.
ESD Tutorial Includes:ESD BasicsHow ESD affects electronics componentsProtecting against ESDESD protected areaESD workbenchESD work matESD wrist strapESD clothingESD storageESD processESD on a budgetDesign to combat ESDAntistatic wrist straps or ESD wrist straps are worn by people working in static sensitive devices and assemblies to prevent them building up charge on themselves which could be transferred to the static sensitive item.
Resistance Tutorial Includes:What is resistanceOhms LawResistivityResistivity table for common materialsResistance temperature coefficientElectrical conductivitySeries & parallel resistorsParallel resistors tableParallel resistors calculatorThis parallel resistance calculator provides an easy method for calculating the overall resistance for two resistors connected in parallel.
Q, Quality Factor Tutorial Includes:Q, quality factor basicsInductor QRLC network QQuality factor or Q factor affects LC filter circuits in the same way that it does for inductors and capacitors.It is generally very important to ensure that the Q is maintained at a sufficiently high levels for the circuit to provide adequate filtering.
Capacitance Tutorial Includes:CapacitanceCapacitor formulasCapacitive reactanceParallel capacitorsSeries capacitorsDielectric constant & relative permittivityDissipation factor, loss tangent, ESRCapacitor conversion chartPermittivity and dielectric constant are two terms that are central to capacitor technology.
Decibels, dB Tutorial Includes:Decibels, dB - the basicsDecibels levels tabledBm to dBW & power conversion chartdBm to watts and volts conversion chartdB, decibel online calculatorNepersWhen working with RF power, it is often useful to know the voltage level for a given power.The table below provides a chart to convert between dBm, watts and voltage - peak to peak in a 50Ω system.
Constant k filters are a form of filter that is designed using what is termed an image method. The constant k filters are the original and simplest filters produced by this methodology and consist of a ladder network of identical sections of passive components.The constant k filters were the first filters that could approach an ideal filter for of response.
Although using DSSS it is not possible to decode a signal unless the correct spreading code is used in the receiver, using CDMA, it is also necessary to ensure that the minimum level of mutual interference is caused between different users accessing a base station.To ensure the minimum levels of interference orthogonal spreading codes must be used.
Phase Locked Loop, PLL Tutorial / Primer Includes:Phase locked loop, PLL basicsPhase detectorPLL voltage controlled oscillator, VCOPLL loop filterThe design of the PLL, loop filter is crucial to the operation of the whole phase locked loop. The actual circuit of the PLL loop filter is generally remarkably simple, but it has a major impact on the performance of the loop.
RF Filters Includes:RF filters - the basicsFilter specificationsRF filter design basicsHigh & low pass filter designConstant-k filterButterworth filterChebychev filterBessel filterElliptical filterCrystal filterA Bessel filter is a type of analogue linear filter used within RF and other electronic applications that has a maximally flat group or phase delay.
RF Mixers & Mixing Tutorial Includes:RF mixing basicsTheory & mathSpecs & dataTransistor mixerFET mixerDouble balanced mixerGilbert cell mixerImage reject mixerThe performance of an RF mixer can be a pivotal element in the overall operation of an RF circuit or system and selection of the correct mixer is key to the design.
FET, Field Effect Transistor Circuit Design Includes:FET circuit design basicsCircuit configurationsCommon sourceCommon drain / source followerCommon gateFET circuit configurations are the common source, common gate, and common drain formats. Each have their own characteristics of voltage and current gain as well as input and output impedance.