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Industry 4.0: The Ways in Which Technology is Transforming Industry
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Industry 4.0: The Ways in Which Technology is Transforming Industry

While consumers are aware of how technology is delivering the world to their fingertips in a very literal way by bringing news, communication, and shopping options directly to their phones, they aren’t always aware of the ways in which technology is changing the way the products they use are made.The possibilities inherent in linking the capabilities of digitalization to the physical aspects of industry by capitalizing on the growing abilities of the Internet of Things (IoT) and other technologies has earned a name of its own, Industry 4.

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MESFET & GaAs FET

FET, Field Effect Transistor, Tutorial Includes:FET basicsFET specsJFETMOSFETDual gate MOSFETPower MOSFETMESFET / GaAs FETHEMT & PHEMTFinFET technologyThe MESFET is a high performance form of field effect transistor that is used mainly for exacting microwave applications both as a low noise signal amplifier and in higher power RF circuits.
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Vacuum tube numbering systems

Vacuum Tube / Thermionic Valves Includes:BasicsHow does a tube workVacuum tube electrodesDiode valve / tubeTriodeTetrodeBeam TetrodePentodeEquivalentsPin connectionsNumbering systemsValve sockets / basesIn order that vacuum tubes or thermionic valve numbering had some reason to it, numbering schemes were developed.
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Understanding Reed Relay Specifications & Parameters

Relay Technology Includes:Relay basicsReed relayReed relay specsRelay circuitsSolid state relayReed relay specifications are different to those of other components normally found in electronic circuits. They have some parameters that can affect the operation of the circuit, and if the right reed relay is to be chosen, its specification needs to be understood.
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MCX RF Connector

The MCX connector is one of a number of mico-miniatiure RF connectors have been developed by a variety of manufacturers to meet the growing demand for cost effective, high quality smaller connectors.These RF connectors are finding high levels of use, for example in the cellular phone industry, where size, cost and performance are all important.
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Quartz Crystal Manufacture

Quartz Crystals, Xtals Tutorial Includes:Quartz crystals: xtalsWhat is quartzHow a crystal worksCrystal overtone operationQuartz crystal frequency pullingQuartz crystal cutsQuartz ageingCrystal resonator manufactureHow to specify a quartz crystalVCXOTCXOOCXOCrystal filterMonolithic crystal filterCeramic resonator & filterCeramic filter specificationsThe quartz crystal resonator manufacturing process has been developed over many years and enables highly specified crystals to be manufactured for many applications.
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Troposcatter communications & propagation

Tropospheric propagation tutorial includes:Tropospheric propagationTroposcatter communicationsOne useful form of radio communications technology for applications where path lengths of around 800 km are needed is known as tropospheric scatter or troposcatter. It is a reliable form of radio communications link that can be used regardless of the prevailing tropospheric conditions.
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Lowest & Maximum Usable Frequency, Critical Frequency

Ionospheric propagation tutorial includes . .Ionospheric propagationIonosphereIonospheric layersSkywaves & skipCritical frequency, MUF, LUF & OWFIonospheric absorptionSolar indicesPropagation softwareNVISTransequatorial propagationGrey line propagationSporadic ESpread FThere are a number of frequencies that are of importance when working with ionospheric radio propagation.
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Radio Wave Propagation & Atmosphere

Radio Propagation Tutorial Includes:Radio propagation basicsRadio signal path lossFree space propagation & path lossLink budgetRadio wave reflectionRadio wave refractionRadio wave diffractionMultipath propagationMultipath fadingRayleigh fadingThe atmosphere & radio propagationThe various effects like reflection, refraction, diffraction, etc all come together in a real way as radio signals propagate through the atmosphere.
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Flexible Waveguide

Waveguide Tutorial Includes:Waveguide basicsWaveguide modesWaveguide impedance & matchingWaveguide cut-off-frequencyWaveguide flangesWaveguide junctionsWaveguide bendsFlexible waveguideWaveguide types & sizesFlexible waveguide is often used to connect two elements using rigid waveguide systems together, especially when they cannot be accurately located or positioned.
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Radio Propagation Prediction Software

Ionospheric propagation tutorial includes . .Ionospheric propagationIonosphereIonospheric layersSkywaves & skipCritical frequency, MUF, LUF & OWFIonospheric absorptionSolar indicesPropagation softwareNVISTransequatorial propagationGrey line propagationSporadic ESpread FAs electromagnetic waves, and in this case, radio signals travel, they interact with objects and the media in which they travel.
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Parabolic Reflector Antenna Gain

Log periodic antenna includes:Parabolic / dish antenna basicsParabolic antenna theory & equationsParabolic antenna gain & directivityParabolic antenna feed systemsThe gain is one of the key factors associated with the parabolic reflector antenna.The high level of gain is one of the main reasons why parabolic reflector antennas are used.
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Radio Signal Path Loss

Radio Propagation Tutorial Includes:Radio propagation basicsRadio signal path lossFree space propagation & path lossLink budgetRadio wave reflectionRadio wave refractionRadio wave diffractionMultipath propagationMultipath fadingRayleigh fadingThe atmosphere & radio propagationRadio path loss is key factor in the design of any radio communications system or wireless communication system.
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Capacitor Formulas

Capacitance Tutorial Includes:CapacitanceCapacitor formulasCapacitive reactanceParallel capacitorsSeries capacitorsDielectric constant & relative permittivityDissipation factor, loss tangent, ESRCapacitor conversion chartThere are many calculations and equations associated with capacitors. The capacitor reactance equations and calculations are common, but there are many more capacitor calculations that may need to be performed.
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What is Solder Paste & How to Use It

SMT Soldering Includes:SMT soldering techniquesWave solderingReflow solderingSoldering BGAsWhat is solder paste & how to use itSee also:Soldering basicsManual soldering: how to solderSoldering ironsTools for solderingSolder - what it is and how to use itDe-soldering - the secrets of how to do it properlySolder jointsSolder paste is the form of solder that is used in association with infrared reflow machines during the PCB assembly process.
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ESD Antistatic Clothing: footwear, shoes, overall, gloves . .

ESD Tutorial Includes:ESD BasicsHow ESD affects electronics componentsProtecting against ESDESD protected areaESD workbenchESD work matESD wrist strapESD clothingESD storageESD processESD on a budgetDesign to combat ESDIt is very important that all people in working in an ESD protected area do not cause static to be generated and transferred to the electronic components and assemblies.
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Capacitor Conversion Chart & Calculator: uF to nF, pF to nF . . .

Capacitance Tutorial Includes:CapacitanceCapacitor formulasCapacitive reactanceParallel capacitorsSeries capacitorsDielectric constant & relative permittivityDissipation factor, loss tangent, ESRCapacitor conversion chartCapacitors are a very common form of electronic component and capacitor values are generally expressed in terms of microfarads, µF (sometimes uF when a micro character is not available), nanofarads, nF and picofarads, pF.
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ESD Protected Area, EPA

ESD Tutorial Includes:ESD BasicsHow ESD affects electronics componentsProtecting against ESDESD protected areaESD workbenchESD work matESD wrist strapESD clothingESD storageESD processESD on a budgetDesign to combat ESDAn ESD protected area, ESDPA or just EPA is an area set up in a facility that is protected from the effects of static.
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ESD Control Process

ESD Tutorial Includes:ESD BasicsHow ESD affects electronics componentsProtecting against ESDESD protected areaESD workbenchESD work matESD wrist strapESD clothingESD storageESD processESD on a budgetDesign to combat ESDIt is very important for any electronics manufacturing, service, repair or any other area dealing with electronic components and circuits to have an ESD protected area of some form.
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Neper: neper to dB conversion chart

Decibels, dB Tutorial Includes:Decibels, dB - the basicsDecibels levels tabledBm to dBW & power conversion chartdBm to watts and volts conversion chartdB, decibel online calculatorNepersAlthough decibels are the main unit for expressing the ratios of gain and loss for quantities like electrical power in electronic and other systems, the neper is also used.
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RF Attenuator Construction Practical Guidelines

RF Attenuators Includes:Attenuator basicsAttenuator specsResistive attenuator designAttenuator resistor values tableBalanced resistive attenuator padsVariable PIN diode attenuatorConstruction guidelinesSMA attenuatorIt is often useful to incorporate an RF attenuator into an RF circuit. Building the attenuator into the circuit, or making a stand-alone attenuator is often the best option.
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