Radio Propagation Tutorial Includes:Radio propagation basicsRadio signal path lossFree space propagation & path lossLink budgetRadio wave reflectionRadio wave refractionRadio wave diffractionMultipath propagationMultipath fadingRayleigh fadingThe atmosphere & radio propagationRadio signals can travel over vast distances.
SRAM or Static Random Access Memory is a form of semiconductor memory widely used in electronics, microprocessor and general computing applications. This form of semiconductor memory gains its name from the fact that data is held in there in a static fashion, and does not need to be dynamically updated as in the case of DRAM memory.
Step Recovery Diode, SRD Tutorial Includes:Step Recovery DiodeOther diodes: Diode typesThe step recovery diode or SRD is a form of semiconductor diode that can be used as a charge controlled switch and it has the ability to generate very sharp pulses.The step recovery diode, SRD is a rather specialist device that finds a number of applications in microwave radio frequency electronics.
LED lamps provide an ideal replacement for the older compact fluorescent and incandescent lighting lamps.Not only do LED lamps provide better efficiency levels, but they also provide a longer life.However it is necessary to be able to equate the light output of the different forms of light. A watts to lumens chart is very useful.
The Nickel Cadmium, NiCd or NiCad battery was the first type of rechargeable cell that could be used for portable electronics equipment.Although the Lead Acid battery had been available for many years, it was mainly used for automotive batteries. Th NiCd could easily be used as a direct replacement for many standard primary batteries and its use quickly caught on.
Power Banks Includes:What is a Power BankHow a power bank worksHow to use a power bankHow to buy best power bankWireless charging power bankPower banks are commonplace and with our increasing use of battery powered equipment: everything from mobile phones to battery powered headphones, portable speakers, MP3 players can be charged via a power bank.
Smart Antenna Technology Includes:Smart antenna basicsBeamforming & beamsteering antennasSmart antennas and smart antenna technology using an adaptive antenna array are being introduced increasingly with the development of other technologies including the software defined radio, cognitive radio, MIMO and many others.
Sigfox Includes:SIGFOX basicsSigFox is a cellular style, long range, low power, low data rate form of wireless communications that has been developed to provide wireless connectivity for devices like remote sensors, actuators and other M2M and IoT devices.The SigFox wireless interface has been developed to enable any communications that take place to consume a minimum amount of power.
IEEE 802.15.4 Includes:IEEE 802.15.46LoWPANThreadIEEE 802.15.4 is a standard that was developed to provide a framework and the lower layers in the OSI model for low cost, low power wireless connectivity networks.IEEE 802.15.4 provides provides the MAC and PHY layers, leaving the upper layers to be developed for specific higher later standards like Thread, Zigbee, 6LoWPAN and many others.
GSM EDGE includes:GSM EDGE introductionNetwork architectureRF interfaceModulation coding schemesEvolved EDGEHaving established the requirement for data services on mobile phones with GPRS, the next evolution was GSM EDGE, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution.This GSM EDGE evolution provided a higher data rate of 384 kbps primarily by using a new form of modulation, along with a number of other enhancements.
The EEPROM also called the E2PROM is a form of semiconductor memory chip that has been in use for many years. The initials EEPROM stand for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory and this gives an insight into its method of operation.The EEPROM is a form of non-volatile memory where individual bytes of data can be erased and reprogrammed.
Smart Locks Includes:How to buy best smart door locksSmart locks are now widely available and they can be used to replace the more traditional mechanical locks providing a number of advantages over the more traditional types.With smart home technology taking off and providing some real advantages in terms of convenience and efficiency, smart or digital door locks can add an extra level of convenience to a home.
LED Lights Includes:How to choose best LED light bulbsThere is a huge range of lighting available for domestic homes these days. As incandescent lamps have given way to halogen bulbs and then compact fluorescent lights, CFLs and now with the transition to LEDs, there is a huge amount to understand. The choice is not as easy as it was a few years ago.
E Carrier telecommunications lines includes:E Carrier basicsE1 link & circuitE1 interfaceThe E carrier telecommunications system and the associated E 1, etc lines has been created by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) as a digital telecommunications carrier scheme for carrying multiple links.
The RS-232 / V24 serial interface communications standard was widely used for many years. It is still used in some instances, especially in existing installations, although its use is now decreasing as Ethernet and other standards take its place.RS232 / V24 was found in many areas from computers to remote terminals and many more.
Private / Land Mobile Radio Includes:LMR / PMR basicsMPT1327TETRAP25DMRdPMRNXDNdPMR, the digital personal, private or professional mobile radio system is a new digital PMR system that has been developed to meet the needs of many radio users.The dPMR or digital PMR system has been developed to offer improved performance over systems such as the licence free analogue PMR446, as well as providing more advanced capabilities for more demanding professional mobile radio users.
TETRA is a modern standard for digital Private Mobile Radio (PMR) and Public Access Mobile Radio (PAMR). It offers many advantages including flexibility, security, ease of use and offers fast call set-up times. This makes it an ideal choice for many business radio communications requirements.The name TETRA stands for TErrestrial Trunked RAdio.
Codes & abbreviations includes:SummaryAbbreviationsRST codeQ codePhonetic alphabetThere is a variety of codes and abbreviations that are used within the field of amateur radio or ham radio.These ham radio abbreviations and codes enable information to be transmitted quickly and efficiently with the minimum chance of errors resulting from them being misinterpreted.
Ham radio bands summaries includes:Ham radio bands summaries136 kHz LF bandHF bandsVHF bandsUHF bandsThe 136 kHz band represents the lowest frequency amateur radio or amateur radio band. Although not allocated to all countries, this band is proving to be very popular with experimenters who are interested in LF band operating and the unique challenges it presents in ham radio.
Red Pitaya is a company that was set up in 2013 and it has developed a number of FPGA based products from a single board multifunction test instrument (oscilloscope, logic analyzer, spectrum analyzer . .), a HAMLab which provides an SDR transceiver and many more products.The Red Pitaya products offer easy a low cost and easy to set up products that provide a high level of performance.
GNSS / SatNav Includes:SatNav / GNSS basicsSatellite Navigation, or SatNav is an accepted part of everyday life. SatNav is included in most new cars today, and the technology is incorporated into most new smartphones allowing them to be used to detect the location of the phone and enable localised ads to be sent as well as providing mapping and direction giving for use walking and in cars, etc.